The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had left Mecca as a fugitive and returned eight years later as a conqueror. Instead of valour and exultation he spoke of his gratitude to God for their success. The Islamic government under the rule of the Prophet (PBUH) could not coexist with the pagan government in Mecca. After seeing the masses that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had drawn with him to Mecca for his pilgrimage they slowly started to change their minds.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) spent two weeks in Mecca to educate his newly converted subjects and began to organise a government like the one he had formed in Medina. He sent out emissaries to surrounding pagan tribes to leave their old ways and to be united under the One True God. Many pagan tribes voluntarily converted to Islam and accepted the doctrines set out by the Prophet (PBUH). The last journey with the word of Islam during the time of the Prophet (PBUH) was to Yemen, where the army of the Elephant first originated. The majority of Arab tribes now recognised Islam and Muslims as the paramount force of the Arabian peninsula.
An important account was that Islam was not to be reserved to one racial, tribal, linguistic, or geographical region. The Nation of Islam (Umma) was an acknowledgement of One God and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as his messenger.
On his way back to Medina, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) camped in a small town called Ghadir Khum where he ordered a pulpit to be made for him. Once the podium had been assembled he gave a sermon that was to become an important part of Islamic history. The sermon has been analysed and reported from two major perspectives that ultimately lead to the split of Islam into Shia and Sunni.
Some excerpts of the sermon are:
I have left among you the Book of God, and if you hold fast to it you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the day of resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: ‘We bear witness that you have conveyed (the message,) discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel.’ He (the narrator) said: He then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointed it at the people (and said): ‘O God, bear witness, O God, bear witness.’ [Muslim]
He delivered another sermon at Mina, where he said, “Do not return to disbelief, killing one another, after I am gone.” [Bukhari]
While some report that Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) ailments began after he visited the graves of Al-Baqi’. He is said to have suffered an immense headache that ultimately resulted in a fever that caused his death. Others also believe a Jewess poisoned a sheep that was offered to the Prophet (PBUH) after the Battle of Khaybar and ultimately let to his demise. The information surrounding the Prophet’s (PBUH) death is minimal and not many reliable accounts exist. Even within Islamic denomination there is disagreement on whether the death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was natural or an assassination. Before his death, it is important to note, that he said the following about the Ansar(previously Jewish and pagan tribe in Yathrib/Medina):
Do not ever for a moment forget what the Ansar have done for you. They gave you shelter and sanctuary. They shared their homes and their bread with you. Though they were not rich, they put your needs ahead of their own needs. They are my ‘legacy’ to you. Other people will grow in number but they will only diminish. Whatever were the obligations of the Ansar, they have faithfully fulfilled them, and now it is your turn to fulfill your obligations toward them.
Prophet Muhammad – A Brief Biography by Al-Balagh Foundation
The Life of Muhammad The Prophet by Sayyid Sa’eed Akhtar Rizvi
The Holy Prophet by Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi
A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims by Sayyid Ali Ashgar Razwy